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History of African Americans – History of American Slavery

Free online books: History of African Americans, History of American Slavery, Famous African American Women, Race Problem in America, Eyes on the Prize, Transatlantic Slave Trade History, The Souls of Black Folks pdf, What was Slavery Like

Hint: When a book you want to borrow at Internet Archive is already checked out, go to the Internet Archive’s ‘Search’ box, check “Search Metadata”, and search for the book’s title. Sometimes they have two or more copies.

African-American History Books Collection

About 1,900 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “African American History”. Be patient as the page loads. Some books: African American History, African American Literature, Rethinking African American Literary History, History and Memory in African-American Culture, 100 African-Americans Who Shaped History, Chronology of African American History, The Complete Encyclopedia of African American History, The African American Odyssey, Milestones in 20th Century African American History, The History of African-American Civic Organizations, African American Folklore, Precolonial African History, African-American Religion, The History of African-American Colleges & Universities, Encyclopedia of African-American Politics, Migration from Africa, African American Biography, Early African American Print Culture, African American Music: an intro, African-American Women Novelists and History, African American History for Young Readers, African American Performance and Theater History, African American Activists, The African American Century, African American Cinema, many more books about African American History.

Slave Trade Books Collection

About 180 free online books at the Internet Archive, resulting from a search for books on “Slave Trade”. Some books: The Atlantic Slave Trade, To Be a Slave, The First African Americans and the Pursuit of Freedom at Jamestown, The African Slave Trade, Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market, Black Cargoes, The Black Holocaust, African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean, Pictorial History of the Slave Trade, Slavery, Atlantic Trade and the British Economy 1660-1800, The Making of African America: the four great migrations, The Story of New England’s Triangular Trade, Capitalism and Slavery, Slave Ships and Slaving, The Story of the Slave Ships, From West African Kingdoms to Colonization, Direction, Ethnicity and Mortality in the Atlantic Slave Trade, A Study of the Atlantic Slave Traders 1441-1807, African Voices of the Atlantic Slave Trade, Slaves, Spices & Ivory in Zanzibar, many more books on the Slave Trade.

The Encyclopedia of African-American Heritage

Altman, Susan
Facts on File 1997        Dewey Dec.    305.8

“An excellent reference for young readers, The Encyclopedia of African-American Heritage chonicles more than a millennium of history — the rich and varied tapestry woven by Africans who remained on their ancestral continent, those who were forced to leave their homes, and their descendants who developed roots in a new land.
The broad scope of coverage highlights people, places, culture, politics, and history.” -Publisher

Firebrand of Liberty: The Story of Two Black Regiments that Changed the Course of the Civil War

Ash, Steven V.
Norton 2007 Dewey Dec. 973.7

“In March 1863, nine hundred black Union soldiers, led by white officers, invaded Florida and seized the town of Jacksonville. They were among the first African American troops in the Northern army, and their expedition into enemy territory was like no other in the Civil War. It was intended as an assault on slavery by which thousands would be freed. At the center of the story is prominent abolitionist Colonel Thomas Wentworth Higginson, who led one of the regiments. After waging battle for three weeks, Higginson and his men were mysteriously ordered to withdraw, their mission a seeming failure. Yet their successes in resisting the Confederates and collaborating with white Union forces persuaded President Abraham Lincoln to begin full-scale recruitment of black troops, a momentous decision that helped turned the tide of the war.” -Publisher

Contents: Port Royal Island, South Carolina : January 1, 1863 — Port Royal Island and the St. Mary’s river : January 2-February 15 — Hilton Head : February 16 — From Port Royal Island to Jacksonville : February 17-March 10 — Jacksonville : March 10-20 — Jacksonville, the East Bank, and Palatka : March 20-27 — Jacksonville and the West Bank : March 27-29 — The aftermath.

Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves

Berlin, Ira
Belknap 2003         Dewey Dec.    326

“Ira Berlin traces the history of African-American slavery in the United States from its beginnings in the seventeenth century to its fiery demise nearly three hundred years later.
Most Americans, black and white, have a singular vision of slavery, one fixed in the mid-nineteenth century when most American slaves grew cotton, resided in the deep South, and subscribed to Christianity. Here, however, Berlin offers a dynamic vision, a major reinterpretation in which slaves and their owners continually renegotiated the terms of captivity. Slavery was thus made and remade by successive generations of Africans and African Americans who lived through settlement and adaptation, plantation life, economic transformations, revolution, forced migration, war, and ultimately, emancipation.” -Publisher
“Berlin has given us a moving, insightful account of slavery in the United States. Readers will not soon forget the story he has told, nor should they.” -NY Times Book Rev.

Contents: Prologue : slavery and freedom — Charter generations — Plantation generations — Revolutionary generations — Migration generations — Epilogue : freedom generations.

Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk about their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Emancipation

Berlin, Ira, Favreau, Marc and Miller, Steven F., eds.
New Press 1998         Dewey Dec.    326

“Early in the 1930s interviewers from the Federal Writers’ Project combed the American South in search of former slaves. The interviewers spoke with hundreds of elderly people about their experiences in slavery, and preserved the voices of some of them on primitive recording devices. This includes a comprehensive introductory essay by preeminent slavery historian Ira Berlin, chapters on aspects of slave life, including relationships with owners, work, family culture, the Civil War, and Emancipation; complete transcript of the live recordings and dramatic readings of interviews with former slaves, contained on the companion tapes; extensive additional interviews with former slaves; little-known period photographs, including some of the former slaves interviewed on the companion tapes.” -Publisher

Contents: Slavery as memory and history — The faces of power: slaves and owners — Work and slave life: “from can to can’t” — Family life in slavery: “our folks” — Slave culture: “honest and fair service to the Lord and all mankind everywhere” — Slaves no more: Civil War and the coming of freedom — Appendixes : 1. “Remembering Slavery”: the radio documentary — 2. Recordings of slave narratives and related materials in the Archive of Folk Culture, Library of Congress.

Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II

Blackmon, Douglas A.

Doubleday 2008 Dewey Dec. 973.91

A Pulitzer Prize-winning account of the “Age of Neoslavery,” the American period following the Emancipation Proclamation in which convicts, mostly black men, were “leased” through forced labor camps operated by state and federal governments. In this groundbreaking historical expose, Douglas A. Blackmon brings to light one of the most shameful chapters in American history—an “Age of Neoslavery” that thrived from the aftermath of the Civil War through the dawn of World War II. Using a vast record of original documents and personal narratives, Douglas A. Blackmon unearths the lost stories of slaves and their descendants who journeyed into freedom after the Emancipation Proclamation and then back into the shadow of involuntary servitude shortly thereafter. By turns moving, sobering, and shocking, this unprecedented account reveals the stories of those who fought unsuccessfully against the re-emergence of human labor trafficking, the companies that profited most from neoslavery, and the insidious legacy of racism that reverberates today.

Contents: Introduction : The bricks we stand on — Part 1. The slow poison — 1. The wedding : fruits of freedom — 2. An industrial slavery : “Niggers is cheap” — 3. Slavery’s increase : “Day after day we looked death in the face & was afraid to speak” — 4. Green Cottenham’s world : “The negro dies faster”.
Part 2. Harvest of an unfinished war — 5. The slave farm of John Pace : “I don’t owe you anything” — 6. Slavery is not a crime : “We shall have to kill a thousand … to get them back to their places” — 7. The indictments : “I was whipped nearly every day” — 8. A summer of trials, 1903 : “The master treated the slave unmercifully” — 9. A river of anger : the South is “an armed camp” — 10. The disapprobation of God : “It is a very rare thing that a negro escapes” — 11. New South rising : “This great corporation.”
Part 3. The final chapter of American slavery — 13. The arrest of Green Cottenham : a war of atrocities — 14. Anatomy of a slave mine : “Degraded to a plane lower than the brutes” — 15. Everywhere was death : “Negro quietly swung up by an armed mob … all is quiet” — 16. Atlanta, the South’s finest city : “I will murder you if you don’t do that work” — 17. Freedom : “In the United States one cannot sell himself” — Epilogue : The ephemera of catastrophe

Bound for Canaan: The Underground Railroad and the War for the Soul of America

Bordewich, Fergus M
Amistad 2005 Dewey Dec. 973.6

The civil war brought to a climax the country’s bitter division. But the beginnings of slavery’s denouement can be traced to a courageous band of ordinary Americans, black and white, slave and free, who joined forces to create what would come to be known as the Underground Railroad, a movement that occupies as romantic a place in the nation’s imagination as the Lewis and Clark expedition. The true story of Harriet Tubamn and the Underground Railroad is much more morally complex and politically divisive than even the myths suggest. Against a backdrop of the country’s westward expansion arose a fierce clash of values that was nothing less than a war for the country’s soul. Not since the American Revolution had the country engaged in an act of such vast and profound civil disobedience that not only challenged prevailing mores but also subverted federal law.
Bound for Canaan tells the stories of men and women like David Ruggles, who invented the black underground in New York City; bold Quakers like Isaac Hopper and Levi Coffin, who risked their lives to build the Underground Railroad; and the inimitable Harriet Tubman, soon to be the first African American featured on American currency. Interweaving thrilling personal stories with the politics of slavery and abolition, Bound for Canaan shows how the Underground Railroad gave birth to this country’s first racially integrated, religiously inspired movement for social change.

Contents: pt. 1. Beginnings: 1800 to 1830. — An evil without remedy — The fate of millions unborn — A gadfly in Philadelphia — The hand of God in North Carolina — The spreading stain — pt. 2. Connections: The 1830s. — Free as sure as the Devil — Fanatics, disorganizers, and disturbers of the peace — The grandest revolution the world has ever seen — A whole-souled man — pt. 3. Confrontation: The 1840s. — Across the Ohio — The car of freedom — Our watchword is ONWARD — The saltwater underground — pt. 4. Victory: The 1850s. — A disease of the body politic — Do we call this the land of the free? — General Tubman — Laboratories of freedom — The last train

American Slavery and Colour

Chambers, William
London: Chambers 1857        Dewey Dec.    973.5

William Chambers (1800-1883) was a Scottish publisher and politician who, with his brother Robert, published books in Edinburgh and London and also published the periodical “Chambers Edinburgh Journal”, which began in 1832. William Chambers travelled in American in 1854 and wrote in the Preface of this 1857 volume that, “The sight of a few slave sales has a wonderful effect in awakening the feelings on the subject of slavery. The thing is seen to be an undeniable reality – no mere invention of a novelist. … For three years, I have been haunted by recollections of that saddening scene, and taken a gradually deepening interest in American Slavery.”
Chambers wrote substantial articles on American slavery for each of several 1857 issues of “Chambers Edinburgh Journal”, educating his British readers on the heated propaganda war taking place there as well as related political events such as the 1850 Missouri Compromise. He then published a collection of those articles in this volume.

Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom

Clinton, Catherine
Little, Brown 2004 Dewey Dec. 973.7

Every schoolchild knows of Harriet Tubman’s heroic escape and resistance to slavery.But few readers are aware that Tubman went on to be a scout, a spy, and a nurse for the Union Army, because there has never before been a serious biography for an adult audience of this important woman.This is that long overdue historical work, written by an acclaimed historian of the antebellum era and the Civil War. Illiterate but deeply religious, Tubman left her family in her early 20s to escape to Philadelphia, then a hotbed of abolitionism.There she became the first and only woman, fugitive slave, and black to work as a conductor on the Underground Railroad. So successful was she in spiriting away slaves that the state of Maryland put a $40,000 bounty on her head.Within a year of starting her work, fellow slaves and Northerners began referring to Tubman as ‘Moses’ because of how many people she had freed. With impeccable scholarship that draws on newly available sources and research into the daily lives of slaves, HARRIET TUBMAN is an enduring work on one of the most important figures in American history.

Contents: Remembering Harriet Tubman — Born into bondage — Coming of age in the land of Egypt — Crossing over to freedom — In a free state — The Liberty lines — The Moses of her people — Canadian exile — Trouble in Canaan — Crossroads at Harpers Ferry — Arise, Brethren — Bittersweet victories — Final battles.

Children of Crisis: A Study of Courage and Fear

Coles, Robert
Little, Brown 1977        Dewey Dec.    305.23

“Selections of Coles’ social study of “African American children caught in the throes of the South’s racial integration; the young children of impoverished sharecroppers, migrant workers, and mountaineers in Appalachia; children whose families were transformed by the migration from South to North, from rural to urban communities … ” – Publisher

Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings

Douglass, Frederick; edited by Philip Foner
Lawrence Hill 1999         Dewey Dec.    326

“One of the greatest African American leaders and one of the most brilliant minds of his time, Frederick Douglass spoke and wrote with unsurpassed eloquence on almost all the major issues confronting the American people during his life—from the abolition of slavery to women’s rights, from the Civil War to lynching, from American patriotism to black nationalism. Between 1950 and 1975, Philip S. Foner collected the most important of Douglass’s hundreds of speeches, letters, articles, and editorials into an impressive five-volume set, now long out of print. Abridged and condensed into one volume, and supplemented with several important texts that Foner did not include, Frederick Douglass: Selected Speeches and Writings presents the most significant, insightful, and elegant short works of Douglass’s massive oeuvre.” -Publisher

Contents: From 1841 to the founding of The north star — From the founding of The north star to the Compromise of 1850 — From the Compromise of 1850 to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 — From the Kansas-Nebraska Act to the election of Abraham Lincoln — From secession to the Emancipation Proclamation — From the Emancipation Proclamation to the eve of Appomattox — Reconstruction, 1865-1876 — The post-Reconstruction era, 1877-1895

The Souls of Black Folk; Essays and Sketches

Du Bois, W.E.Burghardt
McClurg 1903         Dewey Dec.    326

“Originally published in 1903, Souls introduced a number of now-canonical terms into the American conversation about race, among them double-consciousness, and it sounded the ominous warning that “the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color-line.” In a new introduction, Shawn Leigh Alexander outlines the historical context of this critical work and provides rare documents from the special collections archive at the Du Bois Library at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Unlike Du Bois’s more scholarly work, Souls blends narrative and autobiographical essays, and it continues to reach a wide domestic and international readership. This moving homage to black life and culture and its sharp economic and historical critique are more important than ever, resonating with today’s unequivocal demand that Black Lives Matter in the twenty-first century.” -Publisher

Contents: The Souls of black folk — The forethought — 1. Of our spiritual strivings — 2. Of the dawn of freedom — 3. Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and others — 4. Of the meaning of progress — 5. Of the wings of Atalanta — 6. Of the training of black men — 7. Of the black belt — 8. Of the quest of the golden fleece — 9. Of the sons of master and man — 10. Of the faith of the fathers — 11. Of the passing of the first-born — 12. Of Alexander Crummell — 13. Of the coming of John — 14. Of the sorrow songs — The afterthought.

Black Reconstruction in America

Du Bois, W. E. B.
Free Press 1998        Dewey Dec.    973.8

After four centuries of bondage, the nineteenth century marked the long-awaited release of millions of black slaves. Subsequently, these former slaves attempted to reconstruct the basis of American democracy. W. E. B. Du Bois, one of the greatest intellectual leaders in United States history, evaluates the twenty years of fateful history that followed the Civil War, with special reference to the efforts and experiences of African Americans. Du Bois’s words best indicate the broader parameters of his work: “the attitude of any person toward this book will be distinctly influenced by his theories of the Negro race. If he believes that the Negro in America and in general is an average and ordinary human being, who under given environment develops like other human beings, then he will read this story and judge it by the facts adduced.” The plight of the white working class throughout the world is directly traceable to American slavery, on which modern commerce and industry was founded, Du Bois argues. Moreover, the resulting color caste was adopted, forwarded, and approved by white labor, and resulted in the subordination of colored labor throughout the world. As a result, the majority of the world’s laborers became part of a system of industry that destroyed democracy and led to World War I and the Great Depression. This book tells that story.

Contents:The black worker — The white worker — The planter — The general strike — The coming of the Lord — Looking backward — Looking forward — The transubstantiation of a poor white — The price of disaster — The black proletariat in South Carolina — The black proletariat in Mississippi and Louisiana — The white proletariat in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida — The duel for labor control on border and frontier — Counter-revolution of property — Founding the public school — Back toward slavery — The propaganda of history

Antislavery; the Crusade for Freedom in America

Dumond, Dwight L.
University of Michigan 1961 Dewey Dec. 973.6

“This work of dedicated scholarship and immense learning reveals with extraordinary force the truth behind the Civil War. Year by year slavery in the U.S. became more sinister. It contaminated the body politic, it tainted all institutional life, it became a colossus of arbitrary power and greed.” – Publisher

“Here, in one volume, is contained enough evidence, enough information to wipe segregation from our land. It is fascinating, though at times cruel reading. But it is factual. It has the force of a sledge hammer. I defy anyone to read this book without cringing with shame and embarrassment. It is a must reading for all Americans, North and South.” – Historian Benjamin Fine

Slavemaster President: The Double Career of James Polk

Dusinberre, William
Oxford Univ. 2003 Dewey Dec. 973.6

James K. Polk held the office of President from 1845 to 1849, a period when the expansion of slavery into the territories emerged as a pressing question in American politics. During his presidency, the slave period of Texas was annexed and the future of slavery in the Mexican Cession was debated. Polk also owned a substantial cotton plantation in northern Mississippi and 54 slaves. He was an absentee master who had a string of overseers or agents manage his plantation and did not visit his estate while he was in the White House. In this book, William Dusinberre reconstructs the world of Polk’s estate and the lives of his slaves, and analyzes how Polk’s experience as a slavemaster conditioned his stance towards slavery-related issues. Dusinberre argues that Polk’s policies helped precipitate the civil war he had sought to avert.

Contents: A market for labor power — Flight (I) Tennessee — Flight (II) the Mississippi planation — Profit — The nature of the regime — The spirit of governance — Births and deaths — Family and community — Privileges — Polk’s early response to the antislavery movement — Texas and the Mexican War — Slavery and Union — Alternatives.

Speak Now Against the Day

Egerton, John
Univ. of North Carolina 1995         Dewey Dec.    323.1

Speak Now Against the Day is the astonishing, little-known story of the Southerners who, in the generation before the Supreme Court outlawed school segregation and before Rosa Parks refused to surrender her seat on a Montgomery bus, challenged the validity of a white ruling class and a “separate but equal” division of the races.
The voices of the dissenters, although present throughout the South’s troubled history, grew louder with Roosevelt’s election in 1932. An increasing number of men and women who grappled daily with the economic and social woes of the South began forcefully and courageously to speak and to work toward the day when the South—and the nation—would deliver on the historic promises in the country’s founding documents. This is the story of those brave prophets—thhe ministers, writers, educators, journalists, social activists, union members, and politicians, black and white, who pointed the way to higher ground.
Published forty years after the Brown v. Board of Education ruling of the Supreme Court, this compelling book is not only a rich trove of forgotten history—it also speaks profoundly to us in the context of today’s continuing racial and social conflict.

Contents: pt. I. 1932-1938: A feudal land. The cruelest year ; The state of the South ; Bourbon legacy ; A stirring of new voices ; Eve of the New Deal ; The fireman cometh ; Thunder on the right ; Shaking the pillars ; Pens and swords ; Lightning on the left ; Birth of a notion ; Revival in Birminghanm — pt. II. 1938-1945: Road of hope. A liberating war ; The locust confederacy ; Leaders, followers, scouts ; Dancing in the dark ; Speaking their minds ; The fire this time ; “We of the South must decide” ; Farewell to the chief — Interlogue: Yesterday and tomorrow — pt. III. 1945-1950: Breaking the mold. Postwar opportunity ; Epidemic of violence ; Spotlight on Georgia ; Old-guard politics ; New signs of reform ; Homegrown progressives ; Anticommunism, Southern-style ; Striving for equilibrium ; Democrats and Dixicrats ; Truman’s triumph ; One last chance for change — pt. IV. 1950-1954: Days of grace. Coming to a choice ; Anticommunist white supremacy ; Tiptoeing and whispering ; Courts of last resort — Epilogue: There comes a time.

Better Day Coming: Blacks and Equality, 1890-2000

Fairclough, Adam
Viking 2001         Dewey Dec.    323.1

“Better Day Coming recounts the endeavors of black Americans to achieve civil rights and equality in a society that, after the collapse of Reconstruction, sanctioned racial segregation, racial discrimination, and white political supremacy. It examines the leaders, movements, and strategies that shaped the black vision of equality. Beginning with the campaign against lynching launched by Ida B. Wells in the 1890s, it examines the tradition of militant protest that in 1909 led to the formation of the NAACP and which over the next fifty years formed a powerful foundation for civil rights efforts. Better Day Coming also offers a sympathetic portrait of Marcus Garvey while concluding that black nationalism, both in the 1920s and the 1960s, was doomed to failure. Paying tribute to the role of the Communist party in raising the fight against racism to a higher level of militancy during the 1930s, the book analyzes the contradictory effects of World War II, the cold war, and McCarthyism on black activism during the 1940s.” -Publisher

Contents: The failure of reconstruction and the triumph of white supremacy — Ida B. Wells and the campaign against lynching — Booker T. Washington and the strategy of accommodaton — The Rise of the NAACP — The great war and racial equality — Marcus Garvey and the UNIA — The radical thirties — Blacks in the segregated south, 1919-42 — The NAACP’s challenge to white supremacy, 1935-45 — Two steps forward and one step back, 1946-55 — The nonviolent rebellion, 1955-60 — The civil rights movement, 1960-63 — Birmingham, the freedom summner, and Selma — The rise and fall of black power — The continuing struggle. Machine generated contents note: I — I The Failure of Reconstruction and the Triumph — of White Supremacy — 2 Ida B. Wells and the Campaign Against Lynching — 3 Booker T. Washington and the Strategy ofAccommodaton — 4 The Rise of the NAACP — 5 The Great War and Racial Equality — 6 Marcus Garvey and the UNIA — 7 The Radical Thirties — 8 Blacks in the Segregated South, 1919-42 — 9 lThe NAACP’s Challenge to White Supremacy, 1935-45 — 1O Two Steps Forward and One Step Back, 1946-55 — The Nonviolent Rebellion, 1955-60 — The Civil Rights Movement, 1960-63 — Birmingham, the Freedom Summner, and Selma — The Rise and Fall of Black Power — The Continuing Struggle.

Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves: Indiana Narratives

Federal Writers Project
Washington: Work Projects Administration 1941

This book contains accounts of interviews carried out from 1936 to 1938 with approximately 60 former slaves living in Indiana. Note that other volumes of oral interviews were also prepared in other states as part of this Federal Writers Project.

The African-American Century: How Black Americans have Shaped our Country

Gates, Henry Louis and West, Cornel
Free Press 2000        Dewey Dec.    305

One hundred original profiles of the most influential African-Americans of the twentieth century.
Without Louis Armstrong or Miles Davis, we would not have jazz. Without Toni Morrison or Ralph Ellison, we would miss some of our greatest novels. Without Dr. King or Thurgood Marshall, we would be deprived of political breakthroughs that affirm and strengthen our democracy. Here, two of the leading African-American scholars of our day, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Cornel West, show us why the twentieth century was the African-American century, as they offer their personal picks of the African-American figures who did the most to shape our world.
This colorful collection of personalities includes much-loved figures such as scientist George Washington Carver, contemporary favorites such as comedian Richard Pryor and novelist Alice Walker, and even less-well-known people such as aviator Bessie Coleman. Gates and West also recognize the achievements of controversial figures such as Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan and rap artist Tupac Shakur. Lively, accessible, and illustrated throughout, The African-American Century is a celebration of black achievement and a tribute to the black struggle for freedom in America that will inspire readers for years to come.

Contents: 1900-1909. W.E.B. Dubois ; T. Thomas Fortune ; Matthew Henson ; Jack Johnson ; Scott Joplin ; Henry Ossawa Tanner ; Madame C.J. Walker ; Booker T. Washington ; Ida B. Wells Barnett ; Bert Williams — 1910-1919. Mary McLeod Bethune ; George Washington Carver ; Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. ; Thomas A. Dorsey ; W.C. Handy ; James Weldon Johnson ; Jelly Roll Morton ; Charles Henry Turner ; Jimmy Winkfield ; Carter G. Woodson — 1920-1929. Louis Armstrong ; Junius Austin ; Josephine Baker ; Bessie Coleman ; Marcus Garvey ; Langston Hughes ; Ernest Everett Just ; Oscar Micheaux ; Bessie Smith ; Jean Toomer — 1930-1939. Marian Anderson ; Sterling A. Brown ; Father Divine ; Charles Hamilton Houston ; Zora Neale Hurston ; Robert Johnson ; Joe Louis ; Jesse Owens ; Paul Robeson ; Bill “Bojangles” Robinson — 1940-1949. Charles R. Drew ; Katherine Dunham ; Duke Ellington ; Billie Holiday ; Lena Horne ; Jacob Lawrence ; Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. ; A. Philip Randolph ; Jackie Robinson ; Richard Wright — 1950-1959. Ralph Bunche ; Nat “King” Cole ; Miles Davis ; Ralph Ellison ; Althea Gibson ; Lorraine Hansberry ; Willie Mays ; Rosa Parks ; Art Tatum ; Sarah Vaughan — 1960-1969. Muhammad Ali ; James Baldwin ; John Coltrane ; Angela Davis ; Fannie Lou Hamer ; Jimi Hendrix ; Martin Luther King, Jr. ; Thurgood Marshall ; Sidney Poitier ; Malcolm X — 1970-1979. Hank Aaron ; Maya Angelou ; Romare Bearden ; James Brown ; Marvin Gaye ; Barbara Harris ; Dorothy Height ; Barbara Jordan ; Leontyne Price ; Richard Pryor — 1980-1989. Alvin Ailey ; Bill Cosby ; John Hope Franklin ; Jesse Jackson ; Michael Jackson ; Carl Lewis ; Jessye Norman ; Martin Puryear ; Alice Walker ; August Wilson — 1990-1999. Louis Farrakhan ; Michael Jordan ; Spike Lee ; Wynton Marsalis ; Toni Morrison ; Colin Powell ; Tupac Shakur ; Denzel Washington ; Oprah Winfrey ; Tiger Woods.

Fighting the Devil in Dixie: How Civil Rights Activists Took on the Ku Klux Klan in Alabama

Greenhaw, Wayne
Lawrence Hill 2011         Dewey Dec.    323.1

Examining the growth of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) following the birth of the civil rights movement, this book is filled with tales of the heroic efforts to halt their rise to power. Shortly after the success of the Montgomery bus boycott, the KKK—determined to keep segregation as the way of life in Alabama—staged a resurgence, and the strong-armed leadership of Governor George C. Wallace, who defied the new civil rights laws, empowered the Klan’s most violent members. Although Wallace’s power grew, not everyone accepted his unjust policies, and blacks such as Martin Luther King Jr., J. L. Chestnut, and Bernard LaFayette began fighting back in the courthouses and schoolhouses, as did young southern lawyers such as Charles “Chuck” Morgan, who became the ACLU’s southern director; Morris Dees, who cofounded the Southern Poverty Law Center; and Bill Baxley, Alabama attorney general, who successfully prosecuted the bomber of Birmingham’s 16th Street Baptist Church and legally halted some of Governor Wallace’s agencies designed to slow down integration. Dozens of exciting, extremely well-told stories demonstrate how blacks defied violence and whites defied public ostracism and indifference in the face of kidnappings, bombings, and murders.

Contents: Willie’s first day — The legacy of Willie Edwards — Klan on trial — Hound-dog determined — “Fight everything segregated” — The making of a segregationist — The pair from Howard — “Segregation forever!” — Education of a liberal — Country-boy lawyer — The Alabama story — Requiem for Jimmie Lee Jackson — Don Quixote of the South — The Southern Courier — The rise of John Hulett — Southern Poverty Law Center — The people’s attorney general — Breaking the Klan — “Forgive me, for I have sinned’ — “Like a mighty stream.”

Negro Suffrage in Wisconsin

Gregory, John Goadby
Milwaukee: Transactions 1895


Slavery and Abolition 1831-1841 (American Nation, Vol. 16)

Hart, Albert Bushnell
1906        Dewey Dec.    973.5

“The book has the double purpose of describing the conditions of slavery and the state of mind of those interested for it or against it, and at the same time of recording the events which mark the anti-slavery agitation.” – Author’s Preface
Contents: 1. American Social Characteristics (1830-1860) 2. The Intellectual Life (1830-1840) 3. The Era of Transportation (1830-1850) 4. Slavery as an Economic System (1607-1860) 5. The Slave-Holder and his Neighbors (1830-1860) 6. The Free Negro (1830-1860) 7. Plantation Life (1830-1860) 8. Control of the Slaves (1830-1860) 9. The Slave-Market (1830-1860) 10. The Defence of Slavery (1830-1860) 11. The Anti-Slavery Movement (1624-1840) 12. Garrisonian Abolition (1830-1845) 13. Non-Garrisonian Abolition (1830-1860) 14. The Abolition Propaganda (1831-1840) 15. The Abolitionist and the Slave (1830-1840) 16. The Abolitionist and the Slave-Holder (1830-1860) 17. Abolition and Government (1830-1840) 18. Anti-Slavery in Congress (1831-1840) 19. Interstate and International Relations of Slavery (1822-1842) 20. Panic of 1837 (1837-1841) 21. The Effects of Abolition (1830-1860) 22. Critical Essay on Authorities

The Negro in Ohio, 1802-1870

Hickok, Charles Thomas
Cleveland: Williams 1896

A PhD dissertation in the department of History and Economics at Western Reserve University. Chapter headings are:

1. The Slavery Clause in the Ordinance of 1787
2. The Struggle for Political Equality from the Formation of the State to the Ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment
3. Educational and Industrial Opportunities enjoyed by the Negro
4. Observations on the Slavery Sentiment in the State

Facts on File Encyclopedia of Black Women in America (6 vols)

Hine, Darlene Clark, ed.
Facts on File 1996        Dewey Dec.    305.8

Apparently intended for middle to high school-age students, this volume (one of an eleven-volume set) presents a historical overview of Black women in America followed by alphabetically arranged entries listing important Black women and the organizations they founded. Six titles of eleven are available. Subtitles available are: Education; Science, Health & Medicine; The Early Years 1617-1899; Dance, Sports and Visual Arts; Business & Professions; Literature.

Slavery and the Making of America

Horton, James Oliver and Horton, Lois E.
Oxford Univ. 2005         Dewey Dec.    326

“The history of slavery is central to understanding the history of the United States. Slavery and the Making of America offers a richly illustrated, vividly written history that illuminates the human side of this inhumane institution, presenting it largely through stories of the slaves themselves. Readers will discover a wide ranging and sharply nuanced look at American slavery, from the first Africans brought to British colonies in the early seventeenth century to the end of Reconstruction. The authors document the horrors of slavery, particularly in the deep South, and describe the valiant struggles to escape bondage, from dramatic tales of slaves such as William and Ellen Craft to Dred Scott’s doomed attempt to win his freedom through the Supreme Court. We see how slavery set our nation on the road of violence, from bloody riots that broke out in American cities over fugitive slaves, to the cataclysm of the Civil War… With more than one hundred illustrations, Slavery and the Making of America is a gripping account of the struggles of African Americans against the iniquity of slavery.” -Publisher

Contents: The African roots of Colonial America — Slavery: from the revolution to the cotton kingdom — Westward expansion, antislavery, and resistance — Troublesome property: the many forms of slave resistance — A hard-won freedom: from Civil War contraband to emancipation — Creating freedom during and after the war.

Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market

Johnson, Walter
Harvard Univ. 1999         Dewey Dec.    326

“This work tells the story of slavery in antebellum America by moving away from the cotton plantations and into the slave market itself, the heart of the domestic slave trade. Taking the reader inside the New Orleans slave market, the largest in the nation, where 100,000 men, women, and children were packaged, priced and sold, the author transforms the statistics of this chilling trade into the human drama of traders, buyers, and slaves, negotiating sales that would alter the life of each. What emerges is not only the brutal economics of trading but the vast interdependencies among those involved. Using recently discovered material, Johnson reveals the tenuous shifts of power that occurred in the market’s slave coffles and showrooms. Traders packaged their slaves by feeding them up, dressing them well, and oiling their bodies. Johnson depicts the subtle interrelation of capitalism, paternalism, class consciousness, racism and resistance in the slave market.” -Publisher

Contents: The chattel principle — Between the prices — Making a world out of slaves — Turning people into products — Reading bodies and marking race — Acts of sale — Life in the shadow of the slave market — Southern history and the slave trade.

Selected Articles on the Negro Problem

Johnsen, Julia E., comp.
H. W. Wilson 1921        Dewey Dec.    305.8

In the first decades of the 20th century publisher H.W. Wilson produced many volumes in its Debaters’ Handbook Series on social and political issues that were under discussion at the time. Each book contains the full text of selected articles and documents representing opposing views on the issue, along with a substantial bibliography of books and articles.

Most of the books mentioned in these guides are likely to be freely available online. Search by title; first at the Internet Archive (archive.org), then at HathiTrust.org. Referenced magazine articles may also be available online at the same sites, with HathiTrust the preferred site for magazines.

Waiting ’til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America

Joseph, Peniel E.
Henry Holt 2006         Dewey Dec.    323.1

“Once in a while a book comes along that projects the spirit of an era; this is one of them . . . Vibrant and expressive . . . A well-researched and well-written work.” –The Philadelphia Inquirer
With the rallying cry of “Black Power!” in 1966, a group of black activists, including Stokely Carmichael and Huey P. Newton, turned their backs on Martin Luther King’s pacifism and, building on Malcolm X’s legacy, pioneered a radical new approach to the fight for equality. Drawing on original archival research and more than sixty original oral histories, Peniel E. Joseph vividly invokes the way in which Black Power redefined black identity and culture and in the process redrew the landscapeof American race relations. In a series of character-driven chapters, we witness the rise of Black Power groups such as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Black Panthers, and with them, on both coasts of the country, a fundamental change in the way Americans understood the unfinished business of racial equality and integration.” -Publisher

Contents: Introduction: To shape a new world — Forerunners — At home in the world — Waging war amid shadows — Liberators — Political kingdoms — “Black” is a country — “What we gonna start sayin’ now is Black power!” — Storm warnings — The trail of Huey Percy Newton — Dark days, bright nights — Dashikis and democracy — Epilogue: Legacies, 1975-2005.

I Dream a World: Portraits of Black Women who Changed America

Lanker, Brian and Summers, Barbara
Stewart, Tabori & Chang 1989        Dewey Dec.    305.4

A doubled-paged format of photographs, brief biographical information, and first-person accounts of women from all walks of life.

Contents: Rosa Parks — Janet Collins — Eva Jessye — Bertha Knox Gilkey — Alice Walker — Cicely Tyson — Katherine Dunham — Barbara Jordan — Toni Morrison — Althea T.L. Simmons — Maxine Waters — Johnnetta Betsch Cole — Norma Merrick Sklarek — Gwendolyn Brooks — Leontyne Price — Althea Gibson — Ernestine Anderson — Unita Blackwell — Jewel Plummer Cobb — Clara McBride Hale — Ellen Stewart — Beah Richards — Carrie Saxon Perry — Charlayne Hunter-Gault — Constance Baker Motley — Oprah Winfrey — Sonia Sanchez — Georgia Montgomery Davis Powers — Daisy Bates — Marva Nettles Collins — Lena Horne — Willie Mae Ford Smith — Coretta Scott King — Jewell Jackson McCabe — Mary Frances Berry — Ruby Middleton Forsythe — Jean Blackwell Hutson — Anna Arnold Hedgeman. Johnnie Tillmon — Myrlie Evers — Faye Wattleton — Angela Yvonne Davis — Betty Shabazz — Queen Mother Audley Moore — Harriet Elizabeth Byrd — Shirley Chisholm — Wyomia Tyus — Ruby Dee — Leontine T.C. Kelly — Margaret Walker Alexander — Rachel Robinson — Gloria Dean Randle Scott — Marian Wright Edelman — Elizaeth Catlett — Jackie Torrence — Autherine Lucy — Alexa Canady — Yvonne Brathwaite Burke — Dorothy Irene Height — Sarah Vaughan — Josephine Riley Matthews — Niara Sudarkasa — Wilma Rudolph — Odetta — Cora Lee Johnson — Eleanor Holmes Norton — Ophelia DeVore-Mitchell — Sherian Grace Cadoria — Priscilla L. Williams — Leah Chase — Elizabeth Cotten — Marian Anderson — Winson and Dovie Hudson — Maya Angelou — Septima Poinsette Clark.

The African American Almanac

Lehman, Jeffrey
Gale 2003        Dewey Dec.    305.8

“The African American Almanac provides a range of historical and current information on African American history, society and culture and includes coverage of such topics as Africa and the African diaspora; film and television; landmarks; national organizations; population; religion; science and technology; sports; and more. Users will also find chronologies, texts of important documents, legislation, speeches, biographical profiles, essays, and approximately 600 photographs, illustrations, maps and statistical charts (from 2000 U.S. census data) and more recent reports to help them with their research. A bibliography lists more than 300 books and online resources for further study. Includes a cumulative subject index.” -Publisher

Contents: Chronology — African American firsts — Significant documents in African American history — African American landmarks — Africa and the African diaspora — Africans in America: 1600 to 1900 — Civil rights — Black nationalism — National organizations — Law — Politics — Population — Employment and income — Entrepreneurship — Family and health — Education — Religion — Literature — Media — Film and television — Drama, comedy, and dance — Classical music — Sacred music traditions — Blues and jazz — Popular music — Visual and applied arts — Science and technology — Sports — Military.

Out of the House of Bondage; A Discussion of the Race Problem

Miller, Kelly
NY: Neale 1914        Dewey Dec.    305.8

Professor Miller was the Dean of the College of Arts and Science at Howard University, the premier African-American university. This is a collection of essays that had appeared in leading magazines over a few years prior to 1914. Chapter headings are: – Oath of Afro-American Youth, – A Moral Axiom, – Out of the House of Bondage, – The Physical Destiny of the American Negro, – Education for Manhood, – Crime Among Negroes, – The American Negro as a Political Factor, – Fifty Years of Negro Education, – Negroes in Professional Pursuits, – “The Negro in the New World” and “The Conflict of Color”, – The Ministry, – The Ultimate Race Problem, – I See and am Satisfied

Days of Sorrow, Years of Glory, 1831-1850

From the Nat Turner Revolt to the Fugitive Slave Law

Paulson, Timothy J.
Chelsea House 1994        Dewey Dec.    973.5

A volume in the series ‘Milestones in Black American History’. “…chronicles the action-filled years between Turner’s epochal revolt and Congress’s passage of the disastrous Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. A time of bondage for millions of African Americans, this was also a period when free blacks were demonstrating remarkable battlefield skills and producing a stunning array of industrial inventions, novels and memoirs, music, newspapers, sermons, and political oratory.” -Publisher.

Contents: Two decades of struggle – Blood on the corn – Way down in Egypt land – The Underground railroad – “This Savage and negro War” – “Frederick, Is God Dead?” – The Fugitive Slave Law

The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A History

Rawley, James H.
Norton 1981        Dewey Dec.    380

“The transatlantic slave trade played a major role in the development of the modern world. It both gave birth to and resulted from the shift from feudalism into the European Commercial Revolution. James A. Rawley fills a scholarly gap in the historical discussion of the slave trade from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century by providing one volume covering the economics, demography, epidemiology, and politics of the trade.” -Publisher
The early years of the slave trade — The Portuguese pioneers — Spain and the slave trade — The Dutch and the Danes — France: the early years — France in the eighteenth century — England gains ascendancy — Bristol — Liverpool — London and the eighteenth-century slave trade — The economics of the slave trade — The middle passage — Americans enter the slave trade — The American dimensions and the Massachusetts contribution — Rhode Island — The American slave market.

Slave Country: American Expansion and the Origins of the Deep South

Rothman, Adam
Harvard Univ. 2005 Dewey Dec. 973.4

Slave Country tells the tragic story of the expansion of slavery in the new United States. In the wake of the American Revolution, slavery gradually disappeared from the northern states and the importation of captive Africans was prohibited. Yet, at the same time, the country’s slave population grew, new plantation crops appeared, and several new slave states joined the Union. Adam Rothman explores how slavery flourished in a new nation dedicated to the principle of equality among free men, and reveals the enormous consequences of U.S. expansion into the region that became the Deep South.
Rothman maps the combination of transatlantic capitalism and American nationalism that provoked a massive forced migration of slaves into Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi. He tells the fascinating story of collaboration and conflict among the diverse European, African, and indigenous peoples who inhabited the Deep South during the Jeffersonian era, and who turned the region into the most dynamic slave system of the Atlantic world. Paying close attention to dramatic episodes of resistance, rebellion, and war, Rothman exposes the terrible violence that haunted the Jeffersonian vision of republican expansion across the American continent.
Slave Country combines political, economic, military, and social history in an elegant narrative that illuminates the perilous relation between freedom and slavery in the early United States. This book is essential reading for anyone interested in an honest look at America’s troubled past.

“Rothman challenges us to consider how and why slavery expanded into newly acquired territory in the Old Southwest. Thoughtful, provocative, and innovative, ‘Slave Country’ illuminates the rise of the Cotton Kingdom with all its tragic consequences.” author Randy Sparks.

Contents: Jefferson’s horizon — Civilizing the cotton frontier — Commerce and slavery in lower Louisiana — The wartime challenge — Fulfilling the slave country.

Family Properties: Race, Real Estate, and the Exploitation of Black Urban America

Satter, Beryl
Metropolitan 2009        Dewey Dec.    363.5

Part family story and part urban history, a landmark investigation of segregation and urban decay in Chicago—and cities across the nation
The “promised land” for thousands of Southern blacks, postwar Chicago quickly became the most segregated city in the North, the site of the nation’s worst ghettos and the target of Martin Luther King Jr.’s first campaign beyond the South. In this powerful book, Beryl Satter identifies the true causes of the city’s black slums and the ruin of urban neighborhoods throughout the country: not, as some have argued, black pathology, the culture of poverty, or white flight, but a widespread and institutionalized system of legal and financial exploitation.
In Satter’s riveting account of a city in crisis, unscrupulous lawyers, slumlords, and speculators are pitched against religious reformers, community organizers, and an impassioned attorney who launched a crusade against the profiteers—the author’s father, Mark J. Satter. At the heart of the struggle stand the black migrants who, having left the South with its legacy of sharecropping, suddenly find themselves caught in a new kind of debt peonage. Satter shows the interlocking forces at work in their oppression: the discriminatory practices of the banking industry; the federal policies that created the country’s shameful “dual housing market”; the economic anxieties that fueled white violence; and the tempting profits to be made by preying on the city’s most vulnerable population.
A monumental work of history, this tale of racism and real estate, politics and finance, will forever change our understanding of the forces that transformed urban America.

Like Men of War: Black Troops in the Civil War, 1862-1865

Trudeau, Noah Andre
Back Bay 1999 Dewey Dec. 973.7

In 1862 – more than a year into the Civil War – most Americans believed that blacks did not have the courage, intelligence, or discipline to make combat soldiers. But by war’s end, more then 175,000 African Americans had served in the Union Army. From the first actions along the Mississippi River to the celebrated attack on Fort Wagner to the final skirmishes of the war, black troops more than proved their courage. Like Men of War recounts the complete, battle-by-battle history of these soldiers, beginning with the first unofficial ex-slave regiments and the push to organize all-black federal regiments. Drawing on newspapers, soldiers’ diaries, and letters, acclaimed Civil War historian Noah Andre Trudeau offers a richly textured and unforgettable account of African-American soldiers in battle. This thoroughly researched and engaging history brings these soldiers vividly to life in their own words as they relate their battle experiences and their thoughts on the war and race.

African Americans in Michigan

Walker, Lewis et al.
Michigan State University 2001

“African Americans, as free laborers and as slaves, were among the earliest permanent residents of Michigan, settling among the French, British, and Native people with whom they worked and farmed. Lewis Walker and Benjamin Wilson recount the long history of African American communities in Michigan, delineating their change over time, as migrants from the South, East, and overseas made their homes in the state. Moreover, the authors show how Michigan’s development is inextricably joined with the vitality and strength of its African American residents. In a related chapter, Linwood Cousins examines youth culture and identity in African American schools, linking education with historical and contemporary issues of economics, racism, and power.” -Publisher

The Negro in Detroit: A Survey of the Conditions of a Negro Group in a Northern Industrial Center during the War Prosperity Period

Washington, Forrester B.
Detroit: Research Bureau, Associated Charities of Detroit 1920

An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America

Wiencek, Henry
Thorndike 2004 Dewey Dec. 973.4

“When George Washington wrote his will, he made the startling decision to set his slaves free; earlier he had said that holding slaves was his “only unavoidable subject of regret.” In this groundbreaking work, Henry Wiencek explores the founding father’s engagement with slavery at every stage of his life–as a Virginia planter, soldier, politician, president and statesman. Wiencek’s revelatory narrative, based on a meticulous examination of private papers, court records, and the voluminous Washington archives, documents for the first time the moral transformation culminating in Washington’s determination to emancipate his slaves. He acted too late to keep the new republic from perpetuating slavery, but his repentance was genuine. And it was perhaps related to the possibility–as the oral history of Mount Vernon’s slave descendants has long asserted–that a slave named West Ford was the son of George and a woman named Venus; Wiencek has new evidence that this could indeed have been true.” – Publisher

Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965

Williams, Juan
Penguin 2002         Dewey Dec.    323.1

From the Montgomery bus boycott to the Little Rock Nine to the Selma-Montgomery march, thousands of ordinary people made up the American civil rights movement; their stories are told in Eyes on the prize. From leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr., to lesser-known participants like Barbara Rose Johns and Jim Zwerg, each man and woman made the decision that discrimination was wrong and that something had to be done to stop it. These moving accounts and pictures of the first decade of the civil rights movement are a tribute to — and a reminder of — the people, black and white, who took part in the fight for justice, keeping their eyes on the prize of freedom.

The Origins of American Slavery: Freedom and Bondage in the English Colonies

Wood, Betty
Hill and Wang 1997        Dewey Dec.    973.2

Though the English did not begin their colonization of the New World with the intention of enslaving anyone, by the end of the seventeenth century chattel slavery existed in each of England’s American colonies. Why? And why did the English enslave West Africans rather than native Americans or Europeans? Historians have usually stressed either racial ideology or determining economic and demographic factors, but Betty Wood suggests that a more complex rationale was at work. In this important new analysis, Wood begins by exploring the meanings of freedom and bondage in sixteenth-century English thought and the ideas that men and women of Tudor England had about Africans and native Americans. She studies their prejudices against non-Christians, their responses to models of slavery in the Spanish and French colonies, and their assessment of their own labor shortages, and in the light of these various factors interprets the decision of the English to resort to slave labor in the colonies. She then follows the spread of slavery through the seventeenth century, from the Caribbean and the Carolinas to Virginia tobacco country and finally among the Puritans and Quakers farther north.

Contents: Freedom and bondage in English thought – “Beastly Lyvynge”: Images of West Africans and Native Americans – The First American slaves: the Caribbean and Carolina – Tobacco slaves: the Chesapeake colonies – “Godly Society”: slavery among Puritans and Quakers